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Onchocerciasis and Loiasis in the Population of Widikum, Northwest Cameroon: Prevalence and Implication of Myeloperoxidase and C reactive proteins in Clinical Diseases’ indices

Oumar Mahamat, Nadege Bonkar Chifu, Lem Edith Abongwa, Helen Ngum Ntonifor

BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis and loiasis represent the major filarial parasites in Central and West African countries. This study sought to assess the prevalence of onchocerciasis and loiasis, its effects on inflammation and various clinical signs. METHODS: The diagnosis of onchocerciasis and loiasis was done using skin snips and blood samples respectively from 311 patients. C-reactive proteins and myeloperoxidase were determined using ELISA. RESULTS:Results obtained showed that the prevalence of onchocerciasis was 24.76% while that of loiasis was 13.83% and co-infection was 6.75%. Females were significantly (p=0.002) more infected with onchocerciasis (29.90%), while males registered an insignificant (p=0.535) higher prevalence of loiasis (14.02%). The most infected age group for onchocerciasis (48.19%), loiasis (19.278%) and co-infection (12.05%) was the 36 years-60 years age group and the results were statistically significant at p=0.027, p=0.027 and (p=0.025)respectively.
Females were at significantly higher risk of having onchocerciasis (p=0.005) than males. The 21 years-35 years age group was at significantly high risk of infection with onchocerciasis (p=0.0001) while for loiasis, the 21 years-35 years and 36 years-60 years age groups were more at risk of infection although there was no significant relationship between age and co-infection. Onchocerciasis was significantly prevalent in people with skin thickening (100% p=0.0001) while the prevalence of loiasis was highly significant in patients with skin depigmentation (29.85%; p=0.0001). Participants who were infected with onchocerciasis (2.568 µg L−1 ± 0.259 µg L−1) and loiasis (2.469 µg L−1 ± 0.238 µg L−1) had lower serum myeloperoxidase concentrations while participants with skin depigmentation showed a significantly higher level of Myeloperixidase as compared to those without skin depigmentation (p=0.032). Participants with skin depigmentation (p=0.014) and blurred vision (p=0.047) had significantly high levels of C- reactive proteins. CONCLUSION: This study has established that there is the production of CRP and Myeloperoxidase as inflammatory markers among patients with Onchocerciasis and Loiasis in Widikum and the levels of CRP and myeloperoxidase increases with their clinical manifestations. 

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